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Electric tram | Wikipedia audio article

Electric tram | Wikipedia audio article


A tram (in North America streetcar or trolley)
is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets; some include segments
of segregated right-of-way. The lines or networks operated by tramcars
are called tramways. Historically the term electric street railways
was also used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes
been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are not related to the other vehicles
covered in this article. Tram vehicles are usually lighter and shorter
than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power, usually
fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line; older systems may use a trolley pole
or a bow collector. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third
rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity
in city streets, and diesel in more rural environments. Occasionally, trams also carry freight. Trams are now commonly included in the wider
term “light rail”, which also includes grade-separated systems. Some trams, known as tram-trains, may have
segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail
transport are often indistinct, and a given system may combine multiple features. One of the advantages over earlier forms of
transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the
animals to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given
animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed, fed
and cared for day in and day out, and produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar
company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams largely replaced animal power
in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport
such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years.==Etymology and terminology==The English terms tram and tramway are derived
from the Scots word tram, referring respectively to a type of truck (goods wagon or freight
railroad car) used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram probably derived from Middle
Flemish trame (“beam, handle of a barrow, bar, rung”). The identical word la trame with the meaning
“crossbeam” is also used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers
to the wooden beams the railway tracks were initially made of before the railroad pioneers
switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and, later, steel. The word Tram-car is attested from 1873.Although
the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally
in English; North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar. The term streetcar is first recorded in 1840,
and originally referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began
to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys. A widely held belief holds the word to derive
from the troller (said to derive from the words traveler and roller), a four-wheeled
device that was dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller
to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires; this portmanteau
derivation is, however, most likely folk etymology. “Trolley” and variants refer to the verb troll,
meaning “roll” and probably derived from Old French, and cognate uses of the word were
well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses.The alternative
North American term ‘trolley’ may strictly speaking be considered incorrect, as the term
can also be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground
supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated
to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US (tourist trolley). Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead
been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires generally used to
ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and,
in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may also apply to an aerial ropeway,
e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram
was not adopted in Europe, the term was later associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred
vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires. These electric buses, which use twin trolley
poles, are also called trackless trolleys (particularly in the northeastern US), or
sometimes simply trolleys (in the UK, as well as in Seattle and Vancouver). The New South Wales, Australia, government
has decided to use the term “light rail” for their trams.==History==The history of trams, streetcars or trolley
systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete
periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.===Horse-drawn===The world’s first passenger tram was the Swansea
and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK. The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the
British Parliament in 1804, and this first horse-drawn passenger tramway started operating
in 1807. The service ended in 1827, but was restarted
again in 1860, again using horses. It was worked by steam from 1877, and then,
from 1929, by very large (106-seater) electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something
of a one off however, and no other street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860
when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train.Street railways developed
in America before Europe, largely due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities
which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were then common on the well-paved streets
of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for
a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running
in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America,
was the New York and Harlem Railroad developed by the Irish coach builder John Stephenson,
in New York City which began service in the year 1832. The New York and Harlem Railroad’s Fourth
Avenue Line ran along the Bowery and Fourth Avenue in New York City. It was followed in 1835 by the New Orleans
and Carrollton Railroad in New Orleans, Louisiana, which still operates as the St. Charles Streetcar
Line. Other American cities did not follow until
the 1850s, after which the “animal railway” became an increasingly common feature in the
larger towns.The first permanent tram line in continental Europe was opened in Paris
in 1855 by Alphonse Loubat who had previously worked on American streetcar lines. The tram was developed in numerous cities
of Europe (some of the most extensive systems were found in Berlin, Budapest, Birmingham,
Leningrad, Lisbon, London, Manchester, Paris). The first tram in South America opened in
1858 in Santiago, Chile. The first trams in Australia opened in 1860
in Sydney. Africa’s first tram service started in Alexandria
on 8 January 1863. The first trams in Asia opened in 1869 in
Batavia (now Jakarta), Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia). Problems with horsecars included the fact
that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed,
fed and cared for day in and day out, and produced prodigious amounts of manure, which
the streetcar company was charged with storing and then disposing of. Since a typical horse pulled a streetcar for
about a dozen miles a day and worked for four or five hours, many systems needed ten or
more horses in stable for each horsecar. Horsecars were largely replaced by electric-powered
trams following the improvement of an overhead trolley system on trams for collecting electricity
from overhead wires by Frank J. Sprague. His spring-loaded trolley pole used a wheel
to travel along the wire. In late 1887 and early 1888, using his trolley
system, Sprague installed the first successful large electric street railway system in Richmond,
Virginia. Within a year, the economy of electric power
had replaced more costly horsecars in many cities. By 1889, 110 electric railways incorporating
Sprague’s equipment had been begun or planned on several continents.Horses continued to
be used for light shunting well into the 20th century, and many large metropolitan lines
lasted into the early 20th century. New York City had a regular horsecar service
on the Bleecker Street Line until its closure in 1917. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, had its Sarah Street
line drawn by horses until 1923. The last regular mule-drawn cars in the US
ran in Sulphur Rock, Arkansas, until 1926 and were commemorated by a U.S. postage stamp
issued in 1983. The last mule tram service in Mexico City
ended in 1932, and a mule tram in Celaya, Mexico, survived until 1954. The last horse-drawn tram to be withdrawn
from public service in the UK took passengers from Fintona railway station to Fintona Junction
one mile away on the main Omagh to Enniskillen railway in Northern Ireland. The tram made its last journey on 30 September
1957 when the Omagh to Enniskillen line closed. The “van” now lies at the Ulster Transport
Museum. Horse-drawn trams still operate on the 1876-built
Douglas Bay Horse Tramway in the Isle of Man, and at the 1894-built horse tram at Victor
Harbor in South Australia. New horse-drawn systems have been established
at the Hokkaidō Museum in Japan and also in Disneyland. A horse tram route in Polish gmina Mrozy,
first built in 1902, was reopened in 2012.===Steam===The first mechanical trams were powered by
steam. Generally, there were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a small steam
locomotive (called a tram engine in the UK) at the head of a line of one or more carriages,
similar to a small train. Systems with such steam trams included Christchurch,
New Zealand; Sydney, Australia; other city systems in New South Wales; Munich, Germany
(from August 1883 on), British India (Pakistan) (from 1885) and the Dublin & Blessington Steam
Tramway (from 1888) in Ireland. Steam tramways also were used on the suburban
tramway lines around Milan and Padua; the last Gamba de Legn (“Peg-Leg”) tramway ran
on the Milan-Magenta-Castano Primo route in late 1958.The other style of steam tram had
the steam engine in the body of the tram, referred to as a tram engine (UK) or steam
dummy (US). The most notable system to adopt such trams
was in Paris. French-designed steam trams also operated
in Rockhampton, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1909 and 1939. Stockholm, Sweden, had a steam tram line at
the island of Södermalm between 1887 and 1901. Tram engines usually had modifications to
make them suitable for street running in residential areas. The wheels, and other moving parts of the
machinery, were usually enclosed for safety reasons and to make the engines quieter. Measures were often taken to prevent the engines
from emitting visible smoke or steam. Usually the engines used coke rather than
coal as fuel to avoid emitting smoke; condensers or superheating were used to avoid emitting
visible steam. A major drawback of this style of tram was
the limited space for the engine, so that these trams were usually underpowered. Steam tram engines faded out around 1890s
to 1900s, being replaced by electric trams.===Cable-hauled===Another motive system for trams was the cable
car, which was pulled along a fixed track by a moving steel cable. The power to move the cable was normally provided
at a “powerhouse” site a distance away from the actual vehicle. The London and Blackwall Railway, which opened
for passengers in east London, England, in 1840 used such a system.The first practical
cable car line was tested in San Francisco, in 1873. Part of its success is attributed to the development
of an effective and reliable cable grip mechanism, to grab and release the moving cable without
damage. The second city to operate cable trams was
Dunedin in New Zealand, from 1881 to 1957. The most extensive cable system in the US
was built in Chicago, having been built in stages between 1859 and 1892. New York City developed at least seven cable
car lines.[when?] Los Angeles also had several cable car lines,
including the Second Street Cable Railroad, which operated from 1885 to 1889, and the
Temple Street Cable Railway, which operated from 1886 to 1898. From 1885 to 1940, the city of Melbourne,
Victoria, Australia operated one of the largest cable systems in the world, at its peak running
592 trams on 75 kilometres (47 mi) of track. There were also two isolated cable lines in
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; the North Sydney line from 1886 to 1900, and the King
Street line from 1892 to 1905. In Dresden, Germany, in 1901 an elevated suspended
cable car following the Eugen Langen one-railed floating tram system started operating. Cable cars operated on Highgate Hill in North
London and Kennington to Brixton Hill In South London. They also worked around “Upper Douglas” in
the Isle of Man from 1897 to 1929 (cable car 72/73 is the sole survivor of the fleet). Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure
costs, since an expensive system of cables, pulleys, stationary engines and lengthy underground
vault structures beneath the rails had to be provided. They also required physical strength and skill
to operate, and alert operators to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be disconnected (“dropped”)
at designated locations to allow the cars to coast by inertia, for example when crossing
another cable line. The cable would then have to be “picked up”
to resume progress, the whole operation requiring precise timing to avoid damage to the cable
and the grip mechanism. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred
frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a cable route while the cable
was repaired. Due to overall wear, the entire length of
cable (typically several kilometres) would have to be replaced on a regular schedule. After the development of reliable electrically
powered trams, the costly high-maintenance cable car systems were rapidly replaced in
most locations. Cable cars remained especially effective in
hilly cities, since their nondriven wheels would not lose traction as they climbed or
descended a steep hill. The moving cable would physically pull the
car up the hill at a steady pace, unlike a low-powered steam or horse-drawn car. Cable cars do have wheel brakes and track
brakes, but the cable also helps restrain the car to going downhill at a constant speed. Performance in steep terrain partially explains
the survival of cable cars in San Francisco. The San Francisco cable cars, though significantly
reduced in number, continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being
a well-known tourist attraction. A single cable line also survives in Wellington,
New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 as a funicular but still called the “Wellington Cable Car”). Another system, actually two separate cable
lines with a shared power station in the middle, operates from the Welsh town of Llandudno
up to the top of the Great Orme hill in North Wales, UK.===Gas===
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries a number of systems in various parts of the
world employed trams powered by gas, naphtha gas or coal gas in particular. Gas trams are known to have operated between
Alphington and Clifton Hill in the northern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia (1886–1888);
in Berlin and Dresden, Germany; in Estonia (1921–1951); between Jelenia Góra, Cieplice,
and Sobieszów in Poland (from 1897); and in the UK at Lytham St Annes, Neath (1896–1920),
and Trafford Park, Manchester (1897–1908). On 29 December 1886 the Melbourne newspaper
The Argus reprinted a report from the San Francisco Bulletin that Mr Noble had demonstrated
a new ‘motor car’ for tramways ‘with success’. The tramcar ‘exactly similar in size, shape,
and capacity to a cable grip car’ had the ‘motive power’ of gas ‘with which the reservoir
is to be charged once a day at power stations by means of a rubber hose’. The car also carried an electricity generator
for ‘lighting up the tram and also for driving the engine on steep grades and effecting a
start’.Comparatively little has been published about gas trams. However, research on the subject was carried
out for an article in the October 2011 edition of “The Times”, the historical journal of
the Australian Association of Timetable Collectors, now the Australian Timetable Association.A
tram system powered by compressed natural gas was due to open in Malaysia in 2012, but
the news about the project appears to have dried up.===Electric===The world’s first electric tram line operated
in Sestroretsk near Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky in
1880. The second line was the Gross-Lichterfelde
tramway in Lichterfelde near Berlin in Germany, which opened in 1881. It was built by Werner von Siemens who contacted
Pirotsky. This was world’s first commercially successful
electric tram. It initially drew current from the rails,
with overhead wire being installed in 1883.In Britain, Volk’s electric railway was opened
in 1883 in Brighton (see Volk’s Electric Railway). This two kilometer line, re-gauged to 2 ft
9 in (838 mm) in 1884, remains in service to this day, and is the oldest operating electric
tramway in the world. Also in 1883, Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram
was opened near Vienna in Austria. It was the first tram in the world in regular
service that was run with electricity served by an overhead line with pantograph current
collectors. The Blackpool Tramway, was opened in Blackpool,
UK on 29 September 1885 using conduit collection along Blackpool Promenade. This system is still in operation in a modernised
form.Earliest tram system in Canada was by John Joseph Wright, brother of the famous
mining entrepreneur Whitaker Wright, in Toronto in 1883. In the US, multiple functioning experimental
electric trams were exhibited at the 1884 World Cotton Centennial World’s Fair in New
Orleans, Louisiana, but they were not deemed good enough to replace the Lamm fireless engines
then propelling the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar in that city. The first commercial installation of an electric
streetcar in the United States was built in 1884 in Cleveland, Ohio and operated for a
period of one year by the East Cleveland Street Railway Company. Trams were operated in Richmond, Virginia,
in 1888, on the Richmond Union Passenger Railway built by Frank J. Sprague. Sprague later developed multiple unit control,
first demonstrated in Chicago in 1897, allowing multiple cars to be coupled together and operated
by a single motorman. This gave rise to the modern subway train. Following the improvement of an overhead “trolley”
system on streetcars for collecting electricity from overhead wires by Sprague, electric tram
systems were rapidly adopted across the world.Earlier installations proved difficult or unreliable. Siemens’ line, for example, provided power
through a live rail and a return rail, like a model train, limiting the voltage that could
be used, and delivering electric shocks to people and animals crossing the tracks. Siemens later designed his own version of
overhead current collection, called the bow collector, and Thorold, Ontario, opened in
1887, and was considered quite successful at the time. While this line proved quite versatile as
one of the earliest fully functional electric streetcar installations, it required horse-drawn
support while climbing the Niagara Escarpment and for two months of the winter when hydroelectricity
was not available. It continued in service in its original form
into the 1950s.Sidney Howe Short designed and produced the first electric motor that
operated a streetcar without gears. The motor had its armature direct-connected
to the streetcar’s axle for the driving force. Short pioneered “use of a conduit system of
concealed feed” thereby eliminating the necessity of overhead wire and a trolley pole for street
cars and railways. While at the University of Denver he conducted
important experiments which established that multiple unit powered cars were a better way
to operate trains and trolleys.Sarajevo built a citywide system of electric trams in 1895. Budapest established its tramway system in
1887, and its ring line has grown to be the busiest tram line in Europe, with a tram running
every 60 seconds at rush hour. Bucharest and Belgrade ran a regular service
from 1894. Ljubljana introduced its tram system in 1901
– it closed in 1958. Oslo had the first tramway in Scandinavia,
starting operation on 2 March 1894.The first electric tramway in Australia was a Sprague
system demonstrated at the 1888 Melbourne Centennial Exhibition in Melbourne; afterwards,
this was installed as a commercial venture operating between the outer Melbourne suburb
of Box Hill and the then tourist-oriented country town Doncaster from 1889 to 1896. As well, electric systems were built in Adelaide,
Ballarat, Bendigo, Brisbane, Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart, Kalgoorlie, Launceston, Leonora, Newcastle,
Perth, and Sydney. By the 1970s, the only full tramway system
remaining in Australia was the Melbourne tram system. However, there were also a few single lines
remaining elsewhere: the Glenelg Tram, connecting Adelaide to the beachside suburb of Glenelg,
and tourist trams in the Victorian Goldfields cities of Bendigo and Ballarat. In recent years the Melbourne system, generally
recognised as one of the largest in the world, has been considerably modernised and expanded. The Adelaide line has also been extended to
the Entertainment Centre, and work is progressing on further extensions. Sydney re-introduced trams (or light rail)
on 31 August 1997. A completely new system, known as G:link,
was introduced on the Gold Coast, Queensland on 20 July 2014. At the time of writing, 6 April 2018, Newcastle,
New South Wales, was in the process of reintroducing trams; and work on a completely new system
for Canberra was progressing rapidly. In Japan, the Kyoto Electric railroad was
the first tram system, starting operation in 1895. By 1932, the network had grown to 82 railway
companies in 65 cities, with a total network length of 1,479 km (919 mi). By the 1960s the tram had generally died out
in Japan.Two rare but significant alternatives were conduit current collection, which was
widely used in London, Washington, D.C. and New York City, and the surface contact collection
method, used in Wolverhampton (the Lorain system), Torquay and Hastings in the UK (the
Dolter stud system), and currently in Bordeaux, France (the ground-level power supply system).The
convenience and economy of electricity resulted in its rapid adoption once the technical problems
of production and transmission of electricity were solved. Electric trams largely replaced animal power
and other forms of motive power including cable and steam, in the late 19th and early
20th centuries.There is one particular hazard associated with trams powered from a trolley
pole off an overhead line. Since the tram relies on contact with the
rails for the current return path, a problem arises if the tram is derailed or (more usually)
if it halts on a section of track that has been particularly heavily sanded by a previous
tram, and the tram loses electrical contact with the rails. In this event, the underframe of the tram,
by virtue of a circuit path through ancillary loads (such as interior lighting), is live
at the full supply voltage, typically 600 volts. In British terminology such a tram was said
to be ‘grounded’—not to be confused with the US English use of the term, which
means the exact opposite. Any person stepping off the tram completed
the earth return circuit and could receive a nasty electric shock. In such an event the driver was required to
jump off the tram (avoiding simultaneous contact with the tram and the ground) and pull down
the trolley pole before allowing passengers off the tram. Unless derailed, the tram could usually be
recovered by running water down the running rails from a point higher than the tram, the
water providing a conducting bridge between the tram and the rails.In the 2000s, two companies
introduced catenary-free designs. Alstom’s Citadis line uses a third rail, and
Bombardier’s PRIMOVE LRV is charged by contactless induction plates embedded in the trackway.===Other power sources===
In some places, other forms of power were used to power the tram.====Battery====
As early as 1834, Thomas Davenport, a Vermont blacksmith, had invented a battery-powered
electric motor which he later patented. The following year he used it to operate a
small model electric car on a short section of track four feet in diameter.Attempts to
use batteries as a source of electricity were made from the 1880s and 1890s, with unsuccessful
trials conducted in among other places Bendigo and Adelaide in Australia, and for about 14
years as The Hague accutram of HTM in the Netherlands. The first trams in Bendigo, Australia, in
1892, were battery-powered but within as little as three months they were replaced with horse-drawn
trams. In New York City some minor lines also used
storage batteries. Then, comparatively recently, during the 1950s,
a longer battery-operated tramway line ran from Milan to Bergamo. In China there is a Nanjing battery Tram line
and has been running since 2014.====Human Power====The Convict Tramway was hauled by human power
in the form of convicts from the Port Arthur convict settlement. and was created to replace the hazardous sea
voyage from Hobart to Port Arthur, Tasmania. Charles O’Hara Booth oversaw the construction
of the tramway.It opened in 1836 and ran for 8 km (5 miles) from Oakwood to Taranna. By most definitions, the tramway was the first
passenger-carrying railway/tramway in Australia. An unconfirmed report says that it continued
to Eaglehawk Neck and, if this was so, the length of the tramway would have been more
than doubled. The tramway carried passengers and freight,
and ran on wooden rails. The gauge is unknown. The date of closure is unknown, but it was
certainly prior to 1877.====Liquid fuel====Hastings and some other tramways, for example
Stockholms Spårvägar in Sweden and some lines in Karachi, used petrol trams. Galveston Island Trolley in Texas operated
diesel trams due to the city’s hurricane-prone location, which would result in frequent damage
to an electrical supply system. Although Portland, Victoria promotes its tourist
tram as being a cable car it actually operates using a hidden diesel motor. The tram, which runs on a circular route around
the town of Portland, uses dummies and salons formerly used on the extensive Melbourne cable
tramway system and now beautifully restored.====Compressed air====
Paris operated trams that were powered by compressed air using the Mekarski system.====Hydrogen====
In March 2015, China South Rail Corporation (CSR) demonstrated the world’s first hydrogen
fuel cell vehicle tramcar at an assembly facility in Qingdao. The chief engineer of the CSR subsidiary CSR
Sifang Co Ltd., Liang Jianying, said that the company is studying how to reduce the
running costs of the tram.====Hybrid====The Trieste–Opicina tramway in Trieste operates
a hybrid funicular tramway system. Conventional electric trams are operated in
street running and on reserved track for most of their route. However, on one steep segment of track, they
are assisted by cable tractors, which push the trams uphill and act as brakes for the
downhill run. For safety, the cable tractors are always
deployed on the downhill side of the tram vehicle. Similar systems were used elsewhere in the
past, notably on the Queen Anne Counterbalance in Seattle and the Darling Street wharf line
in Sydney.===Modern development===
In the mid-20th century many tram systems were disbanded, replaced by buses, automobiles
or rapid transit. The General Motors streetcar conspiracy was
a case study of the decline of trams in the United States. In the 21st century, trams have been re-introduced
in cities where they were had been closed down for decades (such as Tramlink in London),
or kept in heritage use (such as Spårväg City in Stockholm). Vehicle fabricates from the 1990s and onwards
(such as Bombardier’s Flexity series and Alstom Citadis) are usually low-floor trams with
features such as articulation and regenerative braking.==Design=====
Single-ended vs double-ended===A double-ended tram has an operator’s cab
and controls at each end of the vehicle, which allows it to easily be driven at full speed
in either direction on a continuous segment of track. Typically at the end of a run, the tram’s
operator will walk from one end of the tram to the other, and then commence the tram route
in the other direction. The tram is usually switched to another track
by use of crossover points or Y-points. Conversely, a single-ended vehicle needs a
method of turning at termini so that the operator’s cab is in the front of the tram for the reverse
journey. This usually necessitates a turning loop or
triangle. On the other hand, the single cab and controls
and fewer door spaces make the tram lighter, increases passenger accommodation (including
many more seats) and effects reductions in equipment, weight, first-cost, maintenance
cost, and operating expense. A single-ended tram has operator’s controls
at only one end, and can safely be driven at speed in the forward direction but is also
capable of reverse movement, typically at slower speed, using a small set of controls
at the rear. The configuration of the doors is usually
asymmetrical, favouring the side expected to be closest to the street kerb and footpath. At the end of a run, the tram must be turned
around via a balloon loop or some other method, to face in the opposite direction for a return
trip. In addition, if overhead electrical power
is fed from a trolley pole, the direction of the trolley pole must be reversed at the
end of the run, to ensure that the pole is “pulled” behind or “trailing” the vehicle,
to avoid ‘dewiring’. This was achieved by a member of the crew
swinging the pole through 180 degrees (if there was only one pole) or lowering one pole
and raising the other if there were two. More commonly nowadays, a bidirectional pantograph
may be used to feed power, eliminating the need for an extra procedure when reversing
direction. Two single-ended trams with doors on both
sides may be coupled into a (semi-)permanently coupled married pair or twinset, with operator’s
controls at each end of the combination. Such a setup is operated as if it were a double-ended
tram, except that the operator must exit one vehicle and enter the other, when reversing
at the end of the run.===Articulated===Articulated trams, invented and first used
by the Boston Elevated Railway in 1912–13 at a total length of about twelve meters long
(40 ft) for each pioneering example of twin-section articulated tram car, have two or more body
sections, connected by flexible joints and a round platform at their pivoting midsection(s). Like articulated buses, they have increased
passenger capacity. In practice, these trams can be up to 56 metres
(184 ft) long (such as CAF Urbos 3 in Budapest, Hungary), while a regular tram has to be much
shorter. With this type, the articulation is normally
suspended between carbody sections. In the Škoda ForCity, which is the world’s
first 100% low floor tram with pivoting bogies, a Jacobs bogie supports the articulation between
the two or more carbody sections. An articulated tram may be low-floor variety
or high (regular) floor variety. Newer model trams may be up to 72 metres (236
ft) long and carry 510 passengers at a comfortable 4 passengers/m2. At crush loadings this would be even higher.===Double decker===A double-decker tram is a tram that has two
levels. Some double-decker trams have open tops. The earliest double-deck trams were horse
drawn. The first electric double-deck trams were
those built for the Blackpool Tramway in 1898, one of which survives at the National Tramway
Museum. Double decker trams were commonplace in Great
Britain and Dublin Ireland before most tramways were torn up in the 1950s and 1960s. New York City’s New York Railways experimented
in 1912 with a Brill double deck Hedley-Doyle stepless centre entrance car, nicknamed the
“Broadway Battleship”, a term that spread to other large streetcars. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia made extensive
use of double decker trams. Arguably the most unusual double-decker tram
used to run between the isolated Western Australian outback town of Leonora and the nearby settlement
of Gwalia. Double decker trams still operate in Alexandria,
Blackpool, Hong Kong, Dubai and Oranjestad.===Drop-Centre (lowered central section)
===Many early 20th century trams used a lowered
central section between the bogies (trucks). This made passenger access easier, reducing
the number of steps required to reach the inside of the vehicle. These cars were frequently referred to as
“drop-centres”. It is believed that the design first originated
in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1906 when Boon & Co Ltd. built 26 such trams in three
series. A number of these trams have been preserved. They were a popular design in Australia and
New Zealand, with at least 780 such tramcars being built for use in Melbourne alone. Trams built since the 1970s have had conventional
high or low floors.===Low floor===From around the 1990s, light rail vehicles
not made for the occasional high platform light rail system have usually been of partial
or fully low-floor design, with the floor 300 to 360 mm (11.8 to 14.2 in) above top
of rail, a capability not found in older vehicles. This allows them to load passengers, including
those in wheelchairs or with perambulators directly from low-rise platforms that are
not much more than raised footpaths/sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access
to disabled passengers without using expensive wheelchair lifts, while at the same time making
boarding faster and easier for other passengers. Passengers appreciate the ease of boarding
and alighting from low-floor trams and moving about inside 100% low-floor trams. Passenger satisfaction with low-floor trams
is high. In some jurisdictions this has even been made
mandatory since the 1990s, for example by the HMRI in Britain and the Disability discrimination
act in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Various companies have developed particular
low-floor designs, varying from part-low-floor (with internal steps between the low-floor
section and the high-floor sections over the bogies), e.g. Citytram and Siemens S70, to
100% low-floor, where the floor passes through a corridor between the drive wheels, thus
maintaining a relatively constant (stepless) level from end to end of the tram. Prior to the introduction of the Škoda ForCity,
this carried the mechanical penalty of requiring bogies to be fixed and unable to pivot (except
for less than 5 degrees in some trams) and thus reducing curve negotiation. This creates undue wear on the tracks and
wheels. Low-floor trams are now running in many cities
around the world, including Adelaide, Amsterdam, Bratislava, Dublin, Gold Coast, Helsinki,
Hiroshima, Houston, Istanbul, Melbourne, Milan, Prague, Sydney, Lviv and many others.====Ultra low floor====The Ultra Low Floor or (ULF) tram is a type
of low-floor tram operating in Vienna, Austria as of 1997 and in Oradea, Romania, with the
lowest floor-height of any such vehicle. In contrast to other low-floor trams, the
floor in the interior of ULF is at sidewalk height (about 18 cm or 7 inches above the
road surface), which makes access to trams easy for passengers in wheelchairs or with
baby carriages. This configuration required a new undercarriage. The axles had to be replaced by a complicated
electronic steering of the traction motors. Auxiliary devices are installed largely under
the car’s roof.====Pivoting bogie====Most low-floor trams carry the mechanical
penalty of requiring bogies to be fixed and unable to pivot. This creates undue wear on the tracks and
wheels and reduces the speed at which a tram can drive through a curve. Some manufacturers such as Citadis deal with
the issue by introducing partially high floor trams. Others try to overcome all shortcomings, and
in 2009 the some such as the Škoda 15 T was developed with pivoting bogies at the ends
and with jacobs bogies between the articulations, but this solution proved expensive.===Tram-train===A tram-train is a light-rail public transport
system where trams run through from an urban tramway network to main-line railway lines
which are shared with conventional trains. This allows passengers to travel from suburban
areas into city-centre destinations without having to change from a train to a tram. Tram-train operation uses vehicles such as
the Flexity Link and Regio-Alstom Citadis, which are suited for use on urban tram lines
and also meet the necessary indication, power, and strength requirements for operation on
main-line railways. It has been primarily developed in Germanic
countries, in particular Germany and Switzerland. Karlsruhe is a notable pioneer of the tram-train.===Cargo tram===Since the 19th century goods have been carried
on rail vehicles through the streets, often near docks and steelworks, for example the
Weymouth Harbour Tramway in Weymouth, Dorset. Belgian vicinal tramway routes were used to
haul agricultural produce, timber and coal from Blégny colliery while several of the
US interurbans carried freight. In Australia, three different “Freight Cars”
operated in Melbourne between 1927 and 1977 and the city of Kislovodsk in Russia had a
freight-only tram system consisting of one line which was used exclusively to deliver
bottled Narzan mineral water to the railway station.Today, the German city of Dresden
has a regular CarGoTram service, run by the world’s longest tram trainsets (59.4 metres
(195 ft)), carrying car parts across the city centre to its Volkswagen factory. In addition to Dresden, the cities of Vienna
and Zürich currently use trams as mobile recycling depots.At the turn of the 21st century,
a new interest has arisen in using urban tramway systems to transport goods. The motivation now is to reduce air pollution,
traffic congestion and damage to road surfaces in city centres. One recent proposal to bring cargo tramways
back into wider use was the plan by City Cargo Amsterdam to reintroduce them into the city
of Amsterdam. In the spring of 2007 the city piloted this
cargo tram operation, which among its aims aimed to reduce particulate pollution in the
city by 20% by halving the number of lorries (5,000) unloading in the inner city during
the permitted timeframe from 07:00 till 10:30. The pilot involved two cargo trams, operating
from a distribution centre and delivering to a “hub” where special electric trucks delivered
the trams’ small containers to their final destination. The trial was successful, releasing an intended
investment of €100 million in a fleet of 52 cargo trams distributing from four peripheral
“cross docks” to 15 inner-city hubs by 2012. These specially built vehicles would be 30
feet (9.14 m) long with 12 axles and a payload of 30 tonnes (33.1 short tons; 29.5 long tons). On weekdays, trams are planned to make 4 deliveries
per hour between 7 a.m. and 11 a.m. and two per hour between 11 a.m. and 11 p.m. With each unloading operation taking on average
10 minutes, this means that each site would be active for 40 minutes out of each hour
during the morning rush hour. In early 2009 the scheme was suspended owing
to the financial crisis impeding fund-raising.===
Tourist tram===Many systems have retained historical trams
which will often run over parts of the system for tourists and tram enthusiasts. In Melbourne, Australia, a number of the iconic
W class run throughout each day in a set route which circles the Central Business District. They are primarily for the use of tourists,
although often also used by regular commuters.===Nursery tram===
After World War II, in both Warsaw and Wrocław, Poland, so-called trams-nurseries were in
operation, collecting children from the workplaces of their parents (often tram employees). These mobile nurseries either carried the
children around the system or delivered them to the nursery school run by transport company.===Hearse tram===Specially appointed hearse trams, or funeral
trolley cars, were used for funeral processions in many cities in the late 19th and early
20th century, particularly cities with large tram systems. The earliest known example in North America
was Mexico City, which was already operating 26 funeral cars in 1886. In the United States, funeral cars were often
given names. At the turn of the century, “almost every
major city [in the US] had one or more” such cars in operation. In Milan, Italy, hearse trams were used from
the 1880s (initially horse-drawn) to the 1920s. The main cemeteries, Cimitero Monumentale
and Cimitero Maggiore, included funeral tram stations. Additional funeral stations were located at
Piazza Firenze and at Porta Romana. In the mid-1940s at least one special hearse
tram was used in Turin, Italy. It was introduced due to the wartime shortage
of automotive fuel.Newcastle, Australia also operated two hearse trams between 1896 and
1948.===Dog car===
In 1937, Melbourne passenger tramcar C class number 30 was converted for transporting dogs
and their owners to the Royal Melbourne Showgrounds. It was known as the “dog car”, and was scrapped
in 1955 .===Restaurant tram===A number of systems have introduced restaurant
trams, particularly as a tourist attraction. This is specifically a modern trend. Systems which have or have had restaurant
trams include Adelaide, Bendigo and Melbourne, in Australia; Brussels in Belgium; The Hague
in the Netherlands; Christchurch in New Zealand; Milan, Rome and Turin in Italy; Moscow, Russia;
Almaty, Kazakhstan and Zürich, Switzerland. Restaurant trams are particularly popular
in Melbourne where three of the iconic W class trams have been converted. All three often run in tandem and there are
usually multiple meal sittings. Bookings often close months in advance. As from mid-October 2018, Melbourne’s restaurant
trams were temporarily taken off the road after failing a Yarra Trams’ safety assessment
due to badly weathered underlying structures. Until the trams again meet safety standards,
the trams are offering stationery dining.Bistro trams with buffets operated between Krefeld
and Düsseldorf in Germany, while Helsinki in Finland has a pub tram. Frankfurt, Germany, has a tourist circle line
called “Ebbelwei-Express”, in which the traditional local drink “Apfelwein” (locally called “Ebbelwei”,
a type of hard cider) is served.===Mobile library service===
Munich tram No.24, delivered in 1912, was refurbished as a mobile library in 1928. Known as “Städtische Wanderbücherei München”,
it was in public service until 1970. It was preserved and is now on public display
in a railway museum in Hanover. Edmonton, Alberta, used a streetcar bookmobile
from 1941 to 1956.===Contractors’ mobile office===
Two former passenger cars from the Melbourne system were converted and used as mobile offices
within the Preston Workshops between 1969 and 1974, by personnel from Commonwealth Engineering
and ASEA who were connected with the construction of Melbourne’s Z Class cars.===Maintenance tram===Most systems had cars that were converted
to specific uses on the system, other than simply the carriage of passengers. As just one example of a system, Melbourne
used or uses the following “technical” cars: a ballast motor, ballast trailers, blow-down
cars, breakdown cars, conductors’ or drivers’ instruction cars, a laboratory testing car,
a line marking car, a pantograph testing car, per way locomotives, a rail hardener locomotive,
a scrapper car, scrubbers, sleeper carriers, track cleaners, a welding car, and a wheel
transport car. Some were built new for specific purposes,
including: rail grinders, scrubbers/track cleaners, and a workshops locomotive.===Rubber-tyred tram===A rubber-tyred tram is a guided bus which
is guided by a fixed rail on the ground and uses overhead cables like a conventional tram. This can allow the vehicles to match the capacity
of conventional trams and cope with gradients up to 13% due to the rubber tyres. There are two systems which use this technology:
the Guided Light Transit (GLT) and Translohr. The GLT “trams” are legally considered buses
as they have steering wheels and can leave the fixed rail when requirements dictate e.g.
when journeying to a depot while a Translohr “tram” cannot operate without a guidance rail
and are generally not considered buses.===Other designs=======
Modular design====The Citadis tram, flagship of the French manufacturer
Alstom, enjoys an innovative design combining lighter bogies with a modular concept for
carriages providing more choices in the types of windows and the number of cars and doors. The recent Citadis-Dualis, intended to run
at up to 100 km/h (62 mph), is suitable for stop spacings ranging from 500 m (1,600 ft)
to 5 km (3.1 mi). Dualis is a strictly modular partial low-floor
car, with all doors in the low-floor sections.====Modern styling====
The Eurotram series was developed by Socimi of Italy. It is used by Strasbourg, Milan, and Porto. The Eurotram has a modern design that makes
it look almost as much like a train as a tram, and has large windows along its entire length.==Operation==
There are two main types of tramways, the classic tramway built in the early 20th century
with the tram system operating in mixed traffic, and the later type which is most often associated
with the tram system having its own right of way. Tram systems that have their own right of
way are often called light rail but this does not always hold true. Though these two systems differ in their operation,
their equipment is much the same.===Track===Tramway track can have different rail profiles
to accommodate the various operating environments of the vehicle. They may be embedded into concrete for street-running
operation, or use standard ballasted track with railroad ties on high-speed sections. A more ecological solution is to embed tracks
into grass turf. Tramway tracks use a grooved rail with a groove
designed for tramway or railway track in pavement or grassed surfaces (grassed track or track
in a lawn). The rail has the railhead on one side and
the guard on the other. The guard provides accommodation for the flange. The guard carries no weight, but may act as
a checkrail. Grooved rail was invented in 1852 by Alphonse
Loubat, a French inventor who developed improvements in tram and rail equipment, and helped develop
tram lines in New York City and Paris. The invention of grooved rail enabled tramways
to be laid without causing a nuisance to other road users, except unsuspecting cyclists,
who could get their wheels caught in the groove. The grooves may become filled with gravel
and dirt (particularly if infrequently used or after a period of idleness) and need clearing
from time to time, this being done by a “scrubber” tram. Failure to clear the grooves can lead to a
bumpy ride for the passengers, damage to either wheel or rail and possibly derailing. In narrow situations double-track tram lines
sometimes reduce to single track, or, to avoid switches, have the tracks interlaced, e.g.
in the Leidsestraat in Amsterdam on three short stretches (see map detail); this is
known as interlaced or gauntlet track. There is a UK example of interlaced track
on the Tramlink, just west of Mitcham Station, where the formation is narrowed by an old
landslip causing an obstruction. (See photo in Tramlink entry).===Track gauge===
Historically, the track gauge has had considerable variations, with narrow gauge common in many
early systems. However, most light rail systems are now standard
gauge. An important advantage of standard gauge is
that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built
machinery. Using standard gauge also allows light rail
vehicles to be delivered and relocated conveniently using freight railways and locomotives. Another factor favoring standard gauge is
that low-floor vehicles are becoming popular, and there is generally insufficient space
for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow gauge layout. Standard gauge also enables – at least in
theory – a larger choice of manufacturers and thus lower procurement costs for new vehicles. However, other factors such as electrification
or loading gauge for which there is more variation may require costly custom built units regardless.===Power supply===
Electric trams use various devices to collect power from overhead lines. The most common device found today is the
pantograph, while some older systems use trolley poles or bow collectors. Ground-level power supply has become a recent
innovation. Another new technology uses supercapacitors;
when an insulator at a track switch cuts off power from the tram for a short distance along
the line, the tram can use energy stored in a large capacitor to drive the tram past the
gap in the power feed. A rather obsolete system for power supply
is conduit current collection. The old tram systems in London, Manhattan
(New York City), and Washington, D.C., used live rails, like those on third-rail electrified
railways, but in a conduit underneath the road, from which they drew power through a
plough. It was called Conduit current collection. Washington’s was the last of these to close,
in 1962. Today, no commercial tramway uses this system. More recently, a modern equivalent to these
systems has been developed which allows for the safe installation of a third rail on city
streets, which is known as surface current collection or ground-level power supply; the
main example of this is the new tramway in Bordeaux.====Ground-level power supply====A ground-level power supply system also known
as Surface current collection or Alimentation par le sol (APS) is an updated version of
the original stud type system. APS uses a third rail placed between the running
rails, divided electrically into eight-metre powered segments with three metre neutral
sections between. Each tram has two power collection skates,
next to which are antennas that send radio signals to energize the power rail segments
as the tram passes over them. Older systems required mechanical switching
systems which were susceptible to environmental problems. At any one time no more than two consecutive
segments under the tram should actually be live. Wireless and solid state switching remove
the mechanical problem. Alstom developed the system primarily to avoid
intrusive power supply cables in the sensitive area of the old city of old Bordeaux.===Tram stop===Tram stops may be similar to bus stops in
design and use, particularly in street-running sections, where in some cases other vehicles
are legally required to stop clear of the tram doors. Some stops may resemble to railway platforms,
particularly in private right-of-way sections and where trams are boarded at standard railway
platform height, as opposed to using steps at the doorway or low-floor trams.===Route===
Route patterns vary greatly among the world’s tram systems, leading to different network
topologies. Most systems start by building up a strongly
nucleated radial pattern of routes linking the city centre with residential suburbs and
traffic hubs such as railway stations and hospitals, usually following main roads. Some of these, such as those in Hong Kong,
Blackpool, Ulm and Bergen, still essentially comprise a single route. Some suburbs may be served by loop lines connecting
two adjacent radial roads. Some modern systems have started by reusing
existing radial railway tracks, as in Nottingham and Birmingham, sometimes joining them together
by a section of street track through the city centre, as in Manchester. Later developments often include tangential
routes linking adjacent suburbs directly, or multiple routes through the town centre
to avoid congestion (as in Manchester’s Second City Crossing. Other new systems, particularly those in large
cities which already have well-developed metro and suburban railway systems, such as London
and Paris, have started by building isolated suburban lines feeding into railway or metro
stations. In Paris these have then been linked by ring
lines. A third, weakly nucleated, route pattern may
grow up where a number of nearby small settlements are linked, such as in the coal-mining areas
served by BOGESTRA or the Silesian Interurbans. A fourth starting point may be a loop in the
city centre, sometimes called a downtown circulator, as in Portland or El Paso. Occasionally a modern tramway system may grow
from a preserved heritage line, as in Stockholm.The resulting route patterns are very different. Some have a rational structure, covering their
catchment area as efficiently as possible, with new suburbs being planned with tramlines
integral to their layout – such is the case in Amsterdam. Bordeaux and Montpellier have built comprehensive
networks, based on radial routes with numerous interconnections, within the last two decades. Some systems serve only parts of their cities,
with Berlin being the prime example, owing to the fact that trams survived the city’s
political division only in the Eastern part. Other systems have ended up with a rather
random route map, for instance when some previous operating companies have ceased operation
(as with the tramways vicinaux/buurtspoorwegen in Brussels) or where isolated outlying lines
have been preserved (as on the eastern fringe of Berlin). In Rome, the remnant of the system comprises
3 isolated radial routes, not connecting in the ancient city centre, but linked by a ring
route. Some apparently anomalous lines continue in
operation where a new line would not on rational grounds be built, because it is much more
costly to build a new line than continue operating an existing one. In some places, the opportunity is taken when
roads are being repaved to lay tramlines (though without erecting overhead cables) even though
no service is immediately planned: such is the case in Lepizigerstraße in Berlin, the
Haarlemmer Houttuinen in Amsterdam, and Botermarkt in Ghent. Tram systems operate across national borders
in Basel (from Switzerland into France and Germany) and Strasbourg (From France into
Germany). It is planned to open a line linking Hasselt
(Belgium) with Maastricht (Netherlands) in 2021.===Controls===
Trams were traditionally operated with separate levers for applying power and brakes. More modern vehicles use a locomotive-style
controller which incorporate a dead man’s switch. The success of the PCC streetcar had also
seen trams use automobile-style foot controls allowing hands-free operation, particularly
when the driver was responsible for fare collection.==Manufacturing==
Approximately 5,000 new trams are manufactured each year. As of February 2017, 4,478 new trams were
on order from their makers, with options being open for a further 1,092.The main manufacturers
are:==Advantages==
Trams (and road public transport in general) can be much more efficient in terms of road
usage than cars – one vehicle replaces about 40 cars (which take up a far larger area of
road space). Vehicles run more efficiently and overall
operating costs are lower. Tram vehicles are very durable, with some
being in continuous revenue service for more than fifty years. This is especially compared to internal combustion
buses, which tend to require high amounts of maintenance and break down after less than
20 years, mostly due to the vibrations of the engine. In many cases tram networks have a higher
capacity than similar buses. This has been cited as a reason for the replacement
of one of Europe’s busiest bus lines (with three-minute headways in peak times) with
a tram by Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe. Trams and light rail systems can be cheaper
to install than subways or other forms of heavy rail. In Berlin the commonly cited figure is that
one kilometer of subway costs as much as ten kilometers of tramway
Tramways can take advantage of old heavy rail alignments some examples include the Manchester
Metrolink of which the Bury Line was part of the East Lancashire Railway. Other examples can be found in London, Boston
and Sydney. They hence sometimes take advantage of high
speed track while on train tracks Passengers can reach surface stations quicker
than underground stations. Subjective safety at surface stations is often
seen to be higher Trams can be tourist attractions in ways buses
usually aren’t==Disadvantages==Tram tracks can be hazardous for cyclists,
as bikes, particularly those with narrow tyres, may get their wheels caught in the track grooves. It is possible to close the grooves of the
tracks on critical sections by rubber profiles that are pressed down by the wheelflanges
of the passing tram but that cannot be lowered by the weight of a cyclist. If not well-maintained, however, these lose
their effectiveness over time. When wet, tram tracks tend to become slippery
and thus dangerous for bicycles and motorcycles, especially in traffic. In some cases, even cars can be affected. The opening of new tram and light rail systems
has sometimes been accompanied by a marked increase in car accidents, as a result of
drivers’ unfamiliarity with the physics and geometry of trams. Though such increases may be temporary, long-term
conflicts between motorists and light rail operations can be alleviated by segregating
their respective rights-of-way and installing appropriate signage and warning systems. Rail transport can expose neighbouring populations
to moderate levels of low-frequency noise. However, transportation planners use noise
mitigation strategies to minimise these effects. Most of all, the potential for decreased private
motor vehicle operations along the tram’s service line because of the service provision
could result in lower ambient noise levels than without.==By region==Trams are in a period of growth, with about
800 tram systems operating around the world, 10 or so new systems being opened each year,
and many being gradually extended. Some of these systems date from the late 19th
or early 20th centuries. In the past 20 years their numbers have been
augmented by modern tramway or light rail systems in cities that had discarded this
form of transport. There have also been some new tram systems
in cities that never previously had them. Tramways with tramcars (British English) or
street railways with streetcars (North American English) were common throughout the industrialised
world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but they had disappeared from most British,
Canadian, French and US cities by the mid-20th century.By contrast, trams in parts of continental
Europe continued to be used by many cities, although there were contractions in some countries,
including the Netherlands.Since 1980 trams have returned to favour in many places, partly
because their tendency to dominate the roadway, formerly seen as a disadvantage, is now considered
to be a merit since it raises the visibility of public transport (encouraging car users
to change their mode of travel), and enables streets to be reconfigured to give more space
to pedestrians, making cites more pleasant places to live. New systems have been built in the United
States, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, France, Australia and many other countries. In Milan, Italy, the old “Ventotto” trams
are considered by its inhabitants a “symbol” of the city. The same can be said of trams in Melbourne
in general, but particularly the iconic W class. The Toronto streetcar system had similarly
become an iconic symbol of the city, operating the largest network in the Americas as well
as the only large-scale tram system in Canada (not including light rail systems, or heritage
lines).===Statistics===
Tram and light rail systems operate in 388 cities across the world, 206 of which are
in Europe; Since 1985, 120 light rail systems have opened;
Since 2000, 78 systems have opened while 13 have closed. The countries that have opened the most systems
since 2000 are the USA (23), France (20), Spain (16), and Turkey (8);
15,618 km (9,705 mi) of track is in operation, with 850 km (530 mi) in construction and a
further 2,350 km (1,460 mi) planned; The longest systems are in Moscow (417 km
or 259 mi), Melbourne (254 km or 158 mi), Saint Petersburg (228 km or 142 mi), Katowice
(Upper Silesian Industrial Region) (200 km or 120 mi), Cologne (193 km or 120 mi), Berlin
(192 km or 119 mi), Budapest (172 km or 107 mi), and Vienna and Milan (170 km or 110 mi). These lines have 32,345 stops at an average
spacing of 484 metres; They carry 13.5 billion passengers a year,
3% of all public transport passengers. The highest-volume systems are Budapest (396
million passengers a year), Prague (333 m), Bucharest (322 m), Saint Petersburg (312 m),
and Vienna (305 m); The most intensely used networks (passengers
per km of, per year) are: Istanbul, Hong Kong, Tokyo and Sarajevo. Just over 36,000 trams and light rail vehicles
are in operation. The largest fleets are in Prague (920), Moscow
(919), Saint Petersburg (833), Budapest (612) and Warsaw (526);
Between 1997 and 2014, 400–450 vehicles have been built per year. As of October 2015, Hong Kong has the world’s
only exclusively double-decker tramway system.===Major tram and light rail systems===The largest tram ((classic tram, streetcar,
straßenbahn) and fast tram (light rail, stadtbahn)) networks in the world by route length (as
of 2016) are Melbourne (256 km; 159 mi), St. Petersburg (205.5 km; 127.7 mi), Cologne (194.8
km; 121.0 mi), Berlin (191.6 km; 119.1 mi), Moscow , Budapest (172 km; 107 mi), Katowice
agglomeration (171 km; 106 mi) and Vienna (170 km; 110 mi).Other large systems include
(but are not limited to): Dallas Light Rail, modern streetcar and heritage streetcar (155
km; 96 mi), Sofia (153.6 km; 95.4 mi), Leipzig (148.3 km; 92.1 mi), Łódź (145 km; 90 mi),
Bucharest (143 km; 89 mi), Prague (142.4 km; 88.5 mi), Kiev (139.9 km; 86.9 mi), Brussels
(138.9 km; 86.3 mi), Warsaw (138 km; 86 mi), Dresden (134 km; 83 mi), Los Angeles (133.1
km; 82.7 mi), Bonn Stadtbahn and streetcars (125.32 km; 77.87 mi), Stuttgart (124.5 km;
77.4 mi), Hanover (121 km; 75 mi), Zagreb (116.3 km; 72.3 mi), Bremen (114.6 km; 71.2
mi), Portland metropolitan area light rail and streetcars (108.2 km; 67.2 mi), Paris
(104.9 km; 65.2 mi), Mannheim/Ludwigshafen (103.4 km; 64.2 mi), Riga (99.52 km; 61.84
mi), Gothenburg (95 km; 59 mi), Kassel (93.3 km; 58.0 mi), Manchester (92.5 km; 57.5 mi),
Kraków (90 km; 56 mi), Dnipro (87.8 km; 54.6 mi), Halle (Saale) (87.6 km; 54.4 mi), San
Diego (86.1 km; 53.5 mi), Pavlodar (86 km; 53 mi), Turin (84 km; 52 mi), Bochum/Gelsenkirchen
(84 km; 52 mi), Zurich (84 km; 52 mi), Toronto (83 km; 52 mi), Amsterdam (80.5 km; 50.0 mi),
Munich (79 km; 49 mi), Antwerp (79 km; n49 mi), Denver (76 km; 47 mi), Iași (76 km;
47 mi), Salt Lake Valley light rail and streetcar (75.42 km (46.86 mi)), Dortmund (75 km; 47
mi), Rotterdam (75 km; 47 mi),St. Louis Metropolitan Area (74 km; 46 mi), Lviv (73.5 km; 45.7 mi),
Mykolaiv (72.83 km; 45.25 mi), Karlsruhe (71.5 km; 44.4 mi), Brno (70.4 km; 43.7 mi), Porto
(70 km; 43 mi), Sacramento (69 km; 43 mi), Frankfurt am Main (68 km; 42 mi), San Jose
and its suburbs (67.9 km; 42.2 mi), Lyon (66.3 km; 41.2 mi), Ostrava (65.7 km; 40.8 mi),
Basel (65.7 km; 40.8 mi, Donetsk (65.7 km; 40.8 mi), Poznań (65.6 km; 40.8 mi), Minsk
(62.8 km; 39.0 mi), Szczecin (60 km; 37 mi), Graz (59.8 km; 37.2 mi), Montpellier (55.6
km; 34.5 mi), Pyongyang (53.5 km; 33.2 mi), Essen (52.4 km; 32.6 mi) and Gdańsk (52.2
km; 32.4 mi). This list is not exhaustive. The length of the following networks is disputed:
Philadelphia trolleycar network comprise from Subway–Surface Trolley Lines with line length
31.9 km; 19.8 mi or by another source 100.8 km; 62.6 mi (the sum of all lines (lines 10
(18.7 km; 11.6 mi), 11 (21.4 km; 13.3 mi), 13 (18.3 km; 11.4 mi), 34 (16.3 km; 10.1 mi)
and 36 (26.1 km; 16.2 mi)), light rail routes 101 and 102 with length 19.2 km (11.9 mi)
and heritage route 15 (line length 13.7 km (8.5 mi)). Put together, it measures 64.6 or 133.5 km
(40.1 or 83.0 mi) of line length. The route length is 86.6 km (53.8 mi). Next, San Francisco light rail and streetcars
have route length 50 km (31 mi) or 59.4 km (36.9 mi). Except it, in city is 8.3 km (5.2 mi) of cable
car. Next networks with disputed route length are
Milan (126.5 km; 78.6 mi) or 181 km (112 mi), Düsseldorf Stadtbahn (76 km; 47 mi) or 78
km (48 mi)/streetcars 72 km (45 mi) or 68.5 km (42.6 mi), The Hague (105 km; 65 mi) or
by other sources 142 km (88 mi), Strasbourg (40.4 km; 25.1 mi) or 57.5 km (35.7 mi), Kolkata
(57 km; 35 mi) or 68 km (42 mi), Nizhny Novgorod (formerly Gorky) (98 km; 61 mi) or 76.5 km
(47.5 mi). This list is not exhaustive. The longest single tram line in the world
is the 68 km (42 mi) Belgian Coast Tram, which runs almost the entire length of the Belgian
coast. Another fairly long line is the Valley Metro
Rail in Phoenix, Arizona, with its 42 km (26 mi).Historically, the Paris Tram System was,
at its peak, the world’s largest system, with 1,111 km (690 mi) of track in 1925 (according
to other sources, ca. 640 km (400 mi) of route length in 1930). However it was completely closed in 1938. The next largest system appears to have been
857 km (533 mi), in Buenos Aires before 19 February 1963. The third largest was Chicago, with over 850
km (530 mi) of track, but it was all converted to trolleybus and bus services by 21 June
1958. Before its decline, the BVG in Berlin operated
a very large network with 634 km (394 mi) of route. Before its system started to be converted
to trolleybus (and later bus) services in the 1930s (last tramway closed 6 July 1952),
the first-generation London network had 555 km (345 mi) of route in 1931. In 1958 trams in Rio de Jainero were employed
on (433 km; 269 mi) of track. The final line, the Santa teresa route was
closed in 1968. During a period in the 1980s, the world’s
largest tram system was in Leningrad (now known as St. Petersburg) with 350 km (220
mi), USSR, and was included as such in the Guinness World Records; however Saint Petersburg’s
tram system has declined in size since the fall of the Soviet Union. Wiena (Vienna) in 1960 had 340 km (211 mi),
before the expansion of bus services and the opening of a subway (1976). Substituting subway services for tram routes
continues. 320 km (199 mi) was in Minneapolis-Saint Paul
in 1947: There streetcars ended 31 October 1953 in Minneapolis and 19 June 1954 in St.
Paul. The Sydney tram network, before it was closed
on 25 February 1961, had 291 km (181 mi) of route, and was thus the largest in Australia. As from 1961, the Melbourne system (currently
recognised as the world’s largest) took over Sydney’s title as the largest network in Australia.===Africa======Asia===Tramway systems were well established in the
Asian region at the start of the 20th century, but started a steady decline during the mid
to late 1930s. The 1960s marked the end of its dominance
in public transportation with most major systems closed and the equipment and rails sold for
scrap; however, some extensive original lines still remain in service in Hong Kong and Japan. In recent years there has been renewed interest
in the tram with modern systems being built in Japan and China. Several cities in China had tram systems during
the 20th century; however, by the end of the century, only Dalian, Hong Kong and Changchun
remained extant. However the 21st century has seen a resurgence
in development of tram transport as China struggles with urban traffic congestion and
pollution with at least 15 systems operating. Hong Kong has an exclusive fleet of double-decker
trams. As of 2017, Chengdu, Sanya, Wuyishan and Haikou
have new tram systems under construction. Zhuhai tram line 1 opened in 2017.The first
Japanese tram line was inaugurated in 1895 as the Kyoto Electric Railroad. The tram reached its zenith in 1932 when 82
rail companies operated 1,479 kilometers of track in 65 cities. The tram declined in popularity through the
remaining years of the 1930s and during the 1960s many of the remaining operational tramways
were shut down or converted into commuter railway lines. In India, trams are in operation in Kolkata. Trams were discontinued in Chennai in 1954
and in Mumbai in 1960.The Northern and Central areas of the City of Colombo in Sri Lanka
had an electric Tram Car system (3 ft 6 in or 1,067 mm gauge). This system commenced operations about 1900
and was discontinued by 1960. However, a new tram system is in the process
of being brought to Colombo as part of the plan of Western Region Megapolis. Other countries with discontinued tram systems
include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Pakistan and Vietnam. However, a tram system is planned for construction
in Gwadar, Pakistan where construction started in late 2011. Trams are also under construction in DHA City,
Karachi. In China the cities of Beijing, Zhuhai, Nanjing
and Shenzhen are planning tram networks for the future.===Europe===In many European cities much tramway infrastructure
was lost in the mid-20th century, though not always on the same scale as in other parts
of the world such as North America. Most of Central and Eastern Europe retained
the majority of its tramway systems and it is here that the largest and busiest tram
systems in the world are found. Whereas most systems and vehicles in the tram
sector are found in Central and Eastern Europe, in the 1960s and 1970s, tram systems were
shut down in many places in Western Europe, however urban transportation has been experiencing
a sustained long running revival since the 1990s. Many European cities are rehabilitating, upgrading,
expanding and reconstructing their old tramway lines and building new tramway lines.===North America===In North America, these vehicles are called
“streetcars” (or “trolleys”); the term tram is more likely to be understood as an aerial
tramway or a people-mover. In most North American cities, streetcar lines
were largely torn up in the mid-20th century for a variety of financial, technological
and social reasons. Exceptions included Boston’s MBTA Green Line
(the most-used light rail system in the United States in 2015), New Orleans, Newark, New
Jersey, Philadelphia (with a much shrunken network), Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Cleveland,
Toronto and Mexico City. Pittsburgh had kept most of its streetcar
system serving the city and many suburbs until severe cutbacks on 27 January 1967, making
it the longest-lasting large-network US streetcar system, though Pittsburgh’s surviving streetcar
lines were converted to light rail in the 1980s. San Francisco’s Muni Metro system is the largest
surviving streetcar system in the United States, and has even revived previously closed streetcar
lines such as the F Market & Wharves heritage streetcar line. Toronto currently has the largest streetcar
system in the Americas in terms of track length and ridership, operated by the Toronto Transit
Commission. This is the only large-scale streetcar system
existing in Canada, not including the light rail systems that some Canadian cities currently
operate, or heritage streetcar lines operating only seasonally. Toronto’s system currently uses Canadian Light
Rail Vehicles and Articulated Light Rail Vehicles, after a history of using PCCs, Peter Witt
cars, and horse-drawn carriages. The TTC has begun accepting delivery of a
fleet of 204 of a variant of Bombardier’s Flexity Outlook (also used in some European
tram systems) as a replacement. Newer light rail lines in Toronto and Kitchener-Waterloo
will be using the Flexity Freedom. Streetcars once existed in Edmonton and Calgary,
but both Canadian cities shut down their streetcar systems. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, both cities
built and expanded new light rail systems. Streetcars also once operated in cities such
as Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec City, Kitchener, Hamilton, Kingston, London, Windsor, Peterborough,
Regina, and Saskatoon. Some of these cities have restored their old
streetcars and now run them as a heritage feature for tourists, such as the Vancouver
Downtown Historic Railway. In a trend started in the 1980s, some American
cities have brought back streetcars, examples of these being Memphis, Portland, Tampa, Little
Rock, Seattle and Dallas. Prior to 2000, most of these new-generation
streetcar systems were heritage streetcar lines, using vintage or replica-vintage vehicles,
but following the 2001 opening of the Portland Streetcar system – the first to use modern
vehicles – most new US systems have been designed to use modern, low-floor cars. Several additional cities are planning or
proposing new streetcar systems, and such systems are under construction in Atlanta,
Charlotte, Cincinnati, Dallas (a second system), Detroit, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Milwaukee,
Oklahoma City, Tucson, and Washington, D.C.. Alternatively, in the late 20th century, several
cities installed modern light rail systems, in part along the same corridors as their
old streetcars systems, the first of these being the San Diego Trolley in San Diego in
1981.===Oceania===Historically, there have been trams in the
following Australian cities and towns: Adelaide, Ballarat, Bendigo, Brisbane, Broken Hill,
Fremantle, Gawler, Geelong, Hobart, Kalgoorlie, Launceston, Leonora, Maitland, Melbourne,
Moonta–Wallaroo, Newcastle, Perth, Rockhampton, Sorrento, Sydney, and Victor Harbor. These ranged from extensive systems to single
lines. The Sydney system, which closed in 1961, was
the most extensive and the largest passenger carrier of any Australian public transport
system then or since, moving over 400 million passengers per annum, at its peak. Virtually all known types of motive power
have been utilised at some stage, in Australia. Today, trams can be found in Melbourne (by
length, the world’s largest system), and to a lesser extent, Adelaide; all other major
cities having largely dismantled their networks by the 1970s. Sydney reintroduced tram services in 1997
on a modern light rail network, while Ballarat and Bendigo retained their trams as heritage
systems. In 2008 and 2009, Bendigo conducted trials
utilising its heritage trams for regular public transport. Portland, Victoria, introduced a tourist tram
in 1996 – this uses a former Melbourne cable car dummy and trailer car, but utilising a
hidden diesel motor. A completely new public transport system opened
on the Gold Coast, Queensland on 20 July 2014, with a major extension completed in December
2017. The new system is known as the G:link and
is the first tram/ light rail system in the state of Queensland since Brisbane closed
its tram network in 1969. The 2010s has also seen a significant expansion
of Sydney’s network, while the construction of light rail in Canberra became the major
issue of the 2016 ACT election, with the ruling parties supporting the project and the opposition
opposing it. The government was returned and construction
of Stage 1 of the light rail has commenced. The railway into the centre of Newcastle was
truncated to Wickham on 25 December 2014, The railway line will be replaced by the Newcastle
Light Rail line. There are also loose plans for new systems
in Hobart, Tasmania, and on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland. New Zealand’s last public transport tramway
system, that of Wellington, closed in 1966. Nevertheless, there had been tramways ranging
from large, comprehensive systems to single lines, in Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin,
Gisborne, Invercargill, Napier, New Plymouth, Greymouth, Westport, Hokitika, Ross, Brighton,
Charleston, Kamiere and Kamara. New Zealand’s tram gauges were not standardised;
the 15 systems used no less than five gauges, making swapping of rolling stock from system
to system difficult. Christchurch has subsequently reintroduced
heritage trams over a new CBD route, but the overhead wiring plus some track was damaged
by the earthquake of 2011. In November 2013 a limited circuit was reopened. Auckland has recently introduced heritage
trams into the Wynyard area, near the CBD, using former Melbourne trams. on 9 May 2018,
two modern tram / Lightrail routes were announced from Wynyard Quarter, via Queen Street to
Auckland Airport via Dominion Road and Onehunga in the South and via Queen Street and Great
North Road, Point Chevalier and onto the Northwestern Motorway to Westgate to be running in the
early 2020s with a possible further extension to Kumeu/Huapai. Preserved Auckland trams from the MOTAT have
made cameo appearances during Heritage Weeks. Heritage lines exist at Auckland’s MOTAT,
the Wellington Tramway Museum at Queen Elizabeth Park on the Kapiti Coast, the Tramways Trust
Wanganui and the Tramway Historical Society at Ferrymead in Christchurch, as well as the
Christchurch Tramway Limited in the central city. Whangarei Steam and Model Railway Club also
run two former Lisbon trams formally from Aspen, Colorado.===South America===Buenos Aires in Argentina once had one of
the most extensive tramway networks in the world with over 857 km (533 mi) of track,
most of it dismantled during the 1960s in favour of bus transportation. A new line, the PreMetro line E2 system feeding
the Line E of the Buenos Aires Subway has been operating for the past few years on the
outskirts of Buenos Aires. Also in the city of Mendoza, in Argentina,
a new tramway system is in construction, the Metrotranvía of Mendoza, which will have
a route of 12.5 km (7.8 mi) and will link five districts of the Greater Mendoza conurbation. The opening of the system is scheduled for
August 2011.In Medellín, Colombia, a tram line began operation on 15 October 2015, as
a revival of old Ayacucho tram.In Santiago, Chile there are plans for a tramway that will
connect the comunes of Las Condes, Lo Barnechea y Vitacura. (tranvía de Las Condes)==Incidents==In January 1864, well-known Anglo-Australian
musician and composer Isaac Nathan was hit and killed by a Sydney horse tram when his
clothing was caught in the door, whilst he was attempting to alight. Nathan is reputed to be one of the first tram
fatalities in the Southern Hemisphere (many sources claim that it was the first such accident). On the morning of 18 August 1901, four masked
men, described as “urban bushrangers”, held up an eastbound horse tram in Riversdale Road,
Melbourne, just past Power Street. For their trouble the men received £2.10.0
in fares from driver Thomas Taylor, and £21.19.0 from eight passengers. One passenger was injured. The bandits were never caught. Contemporary newspapers hypothesised that
the bandits were after a specific commuter who travelled regularly on this particular
tram and who was in the habit of carrying large amounts of cash. In the Tottenham Outrage in 1909, two armed
robbers hijacked a tram and were chased by the police in another tram. On 7 June 1926 Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí
was knocked down by a Barcelona tram and subsequently died. On 27 February 1930, Paul de Vivie (pen name
Vélocio), godfather of the dérailleur was killed by a tram in St Étienne
It is reputed that in the 1930s a murdered body was dragged out of the River Thames in
London. The body had been stripped of anything that
might have identified him. The only clue to the person’s identity was
a portion of a tram ticket hidden in the lining of his coat. The local police did not recognise the ticket
but images in newspapers led to it being identified as a Melbourne tram ticket. Serendipitously, the serial number on the
ticket was intact. Victoria Police in Melbourne, acting as agents
for The Met in London, contacted the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board. From the serial number, the M&MTB were able
to tell which tram depot had issued the ticket, on what day and on which specific tram, and
in which section of a particular route (North Balwyn). Police then interviewed regular commuters
and discovered the identity of a man whom, they believed, had recently travelled to London. This led to the arrest and conviction of the
murderer. Decades after the event, the M&MTB were still
citing the incident in training courses as a reason for tram conductors, etc., to keep
proper and efficient records.==Tram modelling==Model trams are popular in HO scale (1:87)
and O scale (1:48 in the US and generally 1:43,5 and 1:45 in Europe and Asia). They are typically powered and will accept
plastic figures inside. Common manufacturers are Roco and Lima, with
many custom models being made as well. The German firm Hödl and the Austrian Halling
specialise in 1:87 scale. In the US, Bachmann Industries is a mass supplier
of HO streetcars and kits. Bowser Manufacturing has produced white metal
models for over 50 years. There are many boutique vendors offering limited
run epoxy and wood models. At the high end are highly detailed brass
models which are usually imported from Japan or Korea and can cost in excess of $500. Many of these run on 16.5 mm (0.65 in) gauge
track, which is correct for the representation of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)
in HO scale as in US and Japan, but incorrect in 4 mm (1:76.2) scale, as it represents 4
ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm). This scale/gauge hybrid is called OO scale. O scale trams are also very popular among
tram modellers because the increased size allows for more detail and easier crafting
of overhead wiring. In the US these models are usually purchased
in epoxy or wood kits and some as brass models. The Saint Petersburg Tram Company produces
highly detailed polyurethane non-powered O Scale models from around the world which can
easily be powered by trucks from vendors like Q-Car.In the US, one of the best resources
for model tram enthusiasts is the East Penn Traction Club of Philadelphia and Trolleyville
a website of the Southern California Traction Club.It is thought that the first example
of a working model tramcar in the UK built by an amateur for fun was in 1929, when Frank
E. Wilson created a replica of London County Council Tramways E class car 444 in 1:16 scale,
which he demonstrated at an early Model Engineer Exhibition. Another of his models was London E/1 1800,
which was the only tramway exhibit in the Faraday Memorial Exhibition of 1931. Together with likeminded friends, Frank Wilson
went on to found the Tramway & Light Railway Society in 1938, establishing tramway modelling
as a hobby.==In popular culture==
There are many references to trams in popular culture, major references include:-===Literature===
One of the earliest literary references to trams occurs on the second page of Henry James’s
novel The Europeans:”From time to time a strange vehicle drew near to the place where they
stood—such a vehicle as the lady at the window, in spite of a considerable acquaintance
with human inventions, had never seen before: a huge, low, omnibus, painted in brilliant
colours, and decorated apparently with jingling bells, attached to a species of groove in
the pavement, through which it was dragged, with a great deal of rumbling, bouncing, and
scratching, by a couple of remarkably small horses.” Published in 1878, the novel is set in the
1840s, though horse trams were not introduced in Boston till the 1850s. Note how the tram’s efficiency surprises the
European visitor; how two “remarkably small” horses sufficed to draw the “huge” tramcar.Henry
James also makes comical reference to the novelty and excitement of trams in Portrait
of a Lady (1881):”Henrietta Stackpole was struck with the fact that ancient Rome had
been paved a good deal like New York, and even found an analogy between the deep chariot-ruts
traceable in the antique street and the overjangled iron grooves which express the intensity of
American life.”Joseph Conrad described Amsterdam’s trams in chapter 14 of The Mirror of the Sea
(1906): “From afar at the end of Tsar Peter Straat, issued in the frosty air the tinkle
of bells of the horse tramcars, appearing and disappearing in the opening between the
buildings, like little toy carriages harnessed with toy horses and played with by people
that appeared no bigger than children.” In episode 6 (Hades) of James Joyce’s Ulysses
(1918), the party on the way to Paddy Dignam’s funeral in a horse-drawn carriage idly debates
the merits of various tramway improvements:- I can’t make out why the corporation doesn’t
run a tramline from the parkgate to the quays, Mr Bloom said. All those animals could be taken in trucks
down to the boats. – Instead of blocking up the thoroughfare,
Martin Cunningham said. Quite so. They ought to. – Yes, Mr Bloom said, and another thing I
often thought is to have municipal funeral trams like they have in Milan, you know. Run the line out to the cemetery gates and
have special trams, hearse and carriage and all. Don’t you see what I mean? – O that be damned for a story, Mr Dedalus
said. Pullman car and saloon diningroom. – A poor lookout for Corny [the undertaker],
Mr Power added. – Why? Mr Bloom asked, turning to Mr Dedalus. Wouldn’t it be more decent than galloping
two abreast?In his fictionalised but autobiographical Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, published
in 1930, Siegfried Sassoon’s narrator ruminates from his hospital bed in Denmark Hill, London,
in 1917 that “Even the screech and rumble of electric trams was a friendly sound; trams
meant safety; the troops in the trenches thought about trams with affection.” Danzig trams figure extensively in the early
stages of Günter Grass’s Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum). In the last chapter the novel’s hero Oskar
Matzerath and his friend Gottfried von Vittlar steal a tram late at night from outside Unterrath
depot on the northern edge of Düsseldorf. In a surreal journey, von Vittlar drives the
tram through the night, south to Flingern and Haniel and then east to the suburb of
Gerresheim. Meanwhile, inside, Matzerath tries to rescue
the half-blind Victor Weluhn (who had escaped from the siege of the Polish post office in
Danzig at the beginning of the book and of the war) from his two green-hatted would-be
executioners. Mazerath deposits his briefcase, which contains
Sister Dorotea’s severed ring finger in a preserving jar, on the dashboard “where professional
motorman put their lunchboxes”. They leave the tram at the terminus and the
executioners tie Weluhn to a tree in von Vittlar’s mother’s garden and prepare to machine-gun
him. But Matzerath drums, Weluhn sings, and together
they conjure up the Polish cavalry, who spirit both victim and executioners away. Matzerath asks von Vittlar to take his briefcase
in the tram to the police HQ in the Fürstenwall, which he does. The latter part of this route is today served
by tram route 703 terminating at Gerresheim Stadtbahn station (“by the glassworks” as
Grass notes, referring to the famous glass factory). In his 1967 spy thriller An Expensive Place
to Die, Len Deighton misidentifies the Flemish coast tram: “The red glow of Ostend is nearer
now and yellow trains rattle alongside the motor road and over the bridge by the Royal
Yacht Club…” In Funeral in Berlin the protagonist approaches
Checkpoint Charlie driving “across the tram tracks of Zimmerstrasse that bump you into
a world where ‘communist’ is not a dirty word”. The Rev W. Awdry wrote about GER Class C53
called Toby the Tram Engine, which starred in his The Railway Series with his faithful
coach, Henrietta. In Chrome Shelled Regios, a Japanese novel,
trams are featured in the futuristic city of Zuelni. In Haruki Murakami’s novel Norwegian Wood,
protagonist Toru Watanabe takes Tokyo’s only surviving tramline, the Toden Arakawa Line,
to near Ōtsuka Station: “I sat in the last seat and watched the ancient houses passing
close to the window. The tram almost touched the overhanging eaves…. The tram snaked its way through this private
back-alley world.” In Almonds and Raisins by Maisie Mosco, a
novel about Jewish immigration to Manchester, England, from mainland Europe in the early
twentieth century, the newly arrived Sanberg family see a tram for the first time – a
Manchester double-decker. Abraham (the father) exclaims, “A train with
two storeys? And no roof?” [Manchester trams were open-topped in those
days.] The local rabbi explains: “In English, they
call it a tram…. In Yiddish, we don’t have a word for it.” “In the wire overhead, there’s electricity,
we don’t have a word for that either.”===Music===
“The Trolley Song” in the film Meet Me in St. Louis received an Academy Award nomination. The Stompin’ Tom Connors song “To It And At
It” mentions a man who “can’t afford the train, he’s sittin’ on a streetcar, but he’s eastbound
just the same”. And his song “TTC Skidaddler” makes reference
to a TTC Streetcar driver: “I’ve been a streetcar driver now about eleven years and I know the
old Toronto city well, There’s a whole lotta people who wait along the track, For the signal
from my clangin trolley bell…”. Jens Lekman has a song titled “Tram No. 7
to Heaven”, a reference to line 7 of the Gothenburg tram which passes through his native borough
of Kortedala. The band Beirut has a song titled “Fountains
and Tramways” on the EP Pompeii. In 2009 Thomas Haggerty composed and produced
‘Tram’ generations 1, 2 and 3 for the Slowcore/Indie Rock group, Tram. British rock band The Move recorded the song
Turkish Tram Conductor Blues on their 1970 album Looking On.===Film===
Alfred Hitchcock was a well-known rail enthusiast with a particular interest in London trams. An overwhelming majority of his films include
rail or tram scenes, in particular The Lady Vanishes, Strangers on a Train and Number
Seventeen. Often, when the scene and take numbers appeared
on a clapperboard during filming, Hitchcock would translate them into London tram route
numbers; for example, if Scene 23, Take 2, appeared on the clapperboard, he was wont
to whisper: “Woodford; Wimbledon” (the termini of Routes 23 and 2). Dziga Vertov’s experimental 1929 film Man
with a Movie Camera includes shots of trams (at 10 and 42 minutes). Black Orpheus (1959), has a lead character,
Orfeu, who is a tram driver on Rio de Janeiro’s tram system. The central plot of the film Who Framed Roger
Rabbit involves Judge Doom, the villain, dismantling the streetcars of Los Angeles. Malcolm, is an Australian film about a tram
enthusiast who uses his inventions to pull off a bank heist. There are many scenes of Melbourne trams,
as well as models of Melbourne and Adelaide trams, and (at the end of the film) scenes
showing Lisbon trams. Luis Buñuel filmed La Ilusión viaja en tranvía
(English: Illusion Travels by Streetcar) in Mexico in 1953. In Akira Kurosawa’s film Dodesukaden a mentally
ill boy pretends to be a tram conductor. The Elephant Will Never Forget, is an 11-minute
film made in 1953 by British Transport Films to celebrate the London tram network, at the
time of its last few days of operation. Tramvaj (Tram) is an eight-minute,2012 Czech
short animated film directed by Michaela Pavlátová. The 1953 British film, Genevieve is about
vintage cars and, more particularly, the eccentricities of the car owners. The second part of the movie is about an unauthorised
race between Brighton and Westminster Bridge by the film’s two leads, played by John Gregson
and Kenneth More. After many trials and tribulations, the hero
(Gregson) eventually wins the race when the wheels of More’s car gets stuck in the tram
tracks and he moves in entirely the wrong direction, just before reaching the Bridge. There have been three film versions of A Streetcar
Named Desire: in 1951, in 1984 and in 1995. The Herbie films are a series about a Volkswagen
named Herbie. The second film, Herbie Rides Again, has tram
27 living in the garden, near to Herbie. 27 plays a major part in the plot of the film. The 1944 film Meet Me in St. Louis includes
Judy Garland singing The Trolley Song. Several films have been based on The Toonerville
Trolley.===Television===
The US children’s TV show Mister Rogers’ Neighbourhood features a trolley (tram). It is shown on National Educational Television,
PBS, Sprout and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Trams feature in the opening titles of the
world’s longest running TV soap opera Coronation Street, set in a fictional suburb of Greater
Manchester, and produced by Granada Television. A Blackpool tram killed one of the main characters
in 1989 and the most recent faked accident involved a tram (modelled on the Manchester
Metrolink) careering off a viaduct into the set in 2009.===Visual arts===
Tramway is a contemporary visual and performing arts venue located in the Scottish city of
Glasgow. Based in the former Coplawill Glasgow Corporation
Tramways depot in the Pollokshields area of the South Side, it consists of two performance
spaces and two galleries, as well as offering facilities for community and artistic projects. It is claimed to be one of the leading venues
of its type in Europe. A major feature of Spencer Street railway
station, Melbourne from 1978 to 2005 was the giant Cavalcade of Transport mural, measuring
7 by 38 metres (23 by 125 ft). It was financed by the Victorian state government,
and painted by Harold Freedman. It features all forms of transport used in
Victoria from 1835 to 1978, with trams featuring prominently. A horizontal column of trams shows the progression
of vehicle design, with some dozens of trams being illustrated. In 2000, during a revamp and renaming of the
station to Southern Cross railway station, part of the mural was removed. It was taken down completely in 2005 and,
after a cleaning, was in 2007 relocated to Spencer Outlet Centre, adjoining the railway
station. A sculpture of tram 1040, the last numbered
of Melbourne’s iconic “W”-class trams was unveiled at the corner of Flinders and Spencer
Streets, Melbourne, in October 2013. The sculpture is the work of local artist
David Ball. It can be viewed from a number of tram routes,
and is just one block from Southern Cross railway station. A Melbourne tram is featured in an Albert
Tucker painting in his 1945 series Images of Modern Evil. The original is held in the collection of
the National Gallery of Victoria.===Drama===
A Streetcar Named Desire was written by Tennessee Williams in 1947. The Australian play, Storming Mont Albert
by Tram, is set on Melbourne tram route 42. Written by Paul Davies, it was first performed
in February/March 1982 as part of Melbourne’s Moomba festival.===Ballet===
The 1993 ballet A Streetcar Named Desire is based on the play A Streetcar Named Desire.===Opera===
The 1995 opera A Streetcar Named Desire is based on
the play A Streetcar Named Desire.===Other===Toonerville Folks comic strip (1908–55)
by Fontaine Fox featured the “Toonerville Trolley that met all the trains”. In US baseball, the 1944 World Series was
also known as the “Streetcar Series”. The predominance of trams (trolleys) in
the borough of Brooklyn in New York City gave rise to the disparaging term trolley dodger for residents
of the borough. That term, shortened to “Dodger” became the
nickname for the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers). A representation of a Melbourne W-type tram
featured at the opening ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne. The “flying tram” (as it was dubbed) is now
exhibited at the Melbourne Museum. Tramway, North Carolina, is an area of Lee
County, North Carolina which politically forms part of Sanford.==See also=====Tram types======Trams
by region======Other topics

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