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The Speed of Light is NOT About Light

The Speed of Light is NOT About Light


♪ (PBS Digital Studios theme) ♪ Does the speed of light actually
have anything to do with light? ♪ (Space Time theme) ♪ So what is it about the speed
of light that’s so special? Why does the universe
seem to conspire to, 1) keep photons from traveling at any speed but 300,000 kilometers per second in a vacuum, according to
any observer, and, 2) keep anything from traveling faster than that speed? The answer: this statement is
false, or at least backwards. The universe doesn’t arrange itself
to keep the speed of light constant. In fact, spacetime couldn’t
care less about light. The cosmic speed limit is
about something much deeper. This universal constant is, perhaps more accurately,
the ‘speed of causality’. In a previous episode, we talked about causality
by way of the ‘spacetime interval’. Causal connections give us the only ordering of events that all observers will agree on. But why must causality
have a maximum speed? And why is that speed the
same as the speed of light? To understand this, let’s first get our heads around two of the most important insights in physics ever. Ready? First, 1632—frilly collars,
pilgrims in Plymouth, and in Italy, Galileo was
about to be dragged off by the Inquisition for his
book supporting Copernicus and the whole, “Earth is not the
center of the universe,” thing. But in his book, there’s another, less
well known idea—his ‘Principle of Relativity’. This is not Einstein’s Relativity, but instead, the brilliant precursor. Not only is Earth or, indeed,
any other location not special, but Galileo posits that no
velocity is special, either. To put it another way, all experiments should give the same results regardless of the velocity of your non-accelerating, or
inertial, frame of reference. This Galilean Relativity
is an incredible insight that Isaac Newton would later
codify into his Laws of Motion. Fast forward to the 1800s—
top hats, steam trains, and mad experiments to uncover
the laws of electricity and magnetism. Enter James Clerk Maxwell,
scientific maestro, who weaves these laws into
his eponymous equations, describing the entire electromagnetic
phenomenon with such elegance. By the late 1800s, we
have Maxwell’s equations, Newton’s mechanics, various
other awesome theories. And there’s this sense
that physics might be done, except there are hints of something horribly wrong lurking in the math—actually, two hints. The first clues to the bizarre
quantum nature of reality had emerged. And more importantly
for this episode, Maxwell’s equations had cast confusion
on the sacred Galilean Relativity. In fact, we now know that
even Newton’s mechanics were using assumptions that implied an
infinite speed of light, which is really bad. It would imply that space and
time and matter don’t exist. But I’m getting ahead of myself. First, let me explain the
issue with Maxwell’s equations. Imagine a pony on roller blades
with a monkey skateboarding along its back. And make it an electric monkey. Why? Well, magnetism comes from
moving electric charges. So an electric skater monkey
on a rollerblading pony generates a magnetic
field, obviously. And I can figure out the
field strength from Maxwell’s equations based on what I see is the monkey’s total velocity. But what is that velocity? Galileo and Newton tell
us that total monkey speed equals pony blade speed
plus monkey skate speed. But what if this very clever pony
also solves Maxwell’s equations? She sees the monkey moving at only monkey skate speed, and so gets a totally different magnetic field. So who’s right, me or the pony? The key lies in what
we actually measure. We don’t measure magnetic field.
We measure its effect. We measure force. And the pony measures
the same force that I do. See, there’s a velocity-dependent trade-off between the electric and magnetic fields. The two work together to give you the same electromagnetic—the Lorentz—force, regardless of reference frame. This tells us that the electromagnetic force holds clues to the fundamental interplay between
space, time, and velocity. How do we unravel that connection? It’s going to be encoded in the transformation that will allow Maxwell’s equations to jump seamlessly between reference frames—the transformation that represents space and time in our reality. This transformation thing,
it’s like a mathy magic wand that you wave at your description
of spacetime or your physical laws. And it’ll bump you between
reference frames, Harry Potter-style. Wingardium leviosa. An example is the Galilean transformation,
which basically says that velocities add together and space and time
don’t depend on velocity. Newton’s mechanics use it, and we just applied it to Maxwell’s equations to get total monkey speed. But it turns out that there’s no way
to write out Maxwell’s equations so that they give consistent results
under the Galilean transformation. They aren’t invariant
to that transformation. They sort of give the right force at low speeds,
but the fields are a mess. And at high speeds—
forget about it. So does this mean
Maxwell was wrong? No, it means that Galilean
transformation is wrong. The transformation underpinning
Newton’s mechanics is wrong. The only transformation that works
is called the Lorentz transformation. And it was discovered even
before Einstein’s Relativity. But it was Einstein who realized
that the Lorentz transformation tells us how space
and time are connected and that it also predicts
the speed of causality. Now, you can get to this transformation the way Lorentz and Einstein did by requiring a constant speed of light. As an example, there’s
a link to the derivation via the spacetime interval
in the description. But forget about
the speed of light. This transformation is so profound
that it is inevitable based on a few simple statements
about the nature of space and time. Let me show you how. First, we’re not going to pretend
that we know how velocities add. We don’t know that, “total monkey speed equals pony blade speed plus monkey skate speed.” Why would you assume
such as a thing? Next, no preferred
inertial reference frame. Under our new transformation,
the laws of physics will work the same regardless of position, orientation, or velocity. It doesn’t matter where the
pony is, how fast it’s going, or in what direction
it’s skating. This must be true. The Earth is whizzing around the sun,
the sun around the Milky Way. Position, orientation, and velocity
are changing massively. Yet our experiments don’t
seem to care about that. Finally, assume that
the universe make sense. Require that we can consistently
transform between reference frames. I should be able to use
the same transformation to get to the monkey’s frame
as I use to get to the pony’s frame just by using the different velocities. I should also be able
to jump consistently through multiple frames of
reference and back again. E.g., I can go to the monkey’s frame
by first going to the pony’s frame, and then going from pony to monkey. And I can also get
back to my frame by putting a minus
sign on the velocities. Essentially, we’re just
requiring basic consistency in how the dimensions work. Finally, finally—use these axioms
to do a teensy bit of algebra. See the link in the description. The result is the
Lorentz transformation. It’s the only one that satisfies all of these pretty fundamental statements about the relativity, symmetry,
and consistency of our universe. It must describe our reality. And therefore, there must
be a cosmic speed limit. Why? This absolute speed limit—let’s call it ‘c’—is the one parameter defining the Lorentz transformation. Through this parameter,
the Lorentz transformation predicts the cosmic speed limit. Now, the Galilean transformation
turns out just to be a special case of the Lorentz transformation
where c equals infinity. And honestly, just from the symmetry and relativity arguments that we made, c could be infinity. But for other reasons—still unrelated to light—
we know that it cannot be. The Lorentz transformation finally allows us to write down a version of Maxwell’s equation that is invariant
to transformation. With it, we can write down
one law for electromagnetism that works in all
frames of reference. This is further evidence
that our new transformation accurately describes
our reality. But it only works for a
very specific value of c. That value has to
be a combination of the fundamental constants
of Maxwell’s equations. For the laws of electricity
and magnetism to work, we need a finite maximum cosmic speed,
even without considering light. But check this out: the exact same combination that gives us the cosmic speed limit also happens to define the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves—the speed of light. c is the speed of light. But it’s the speed
of causality first. It’s the maximum speed at which any two parts of the universe can talk to each other. In fact, it’s the
maximum speed at which any observers can see two
parts of the universe talk to each other. Because of this,
it’s the only speed that any massless
particle can travel. So lights or photons, also gravitational waves
and gluons, all have no mass. And so they travel at the
maximum possible speed. Mass is an impediment to motion. No mass, no impediment. So massless things go as
fast as it’s possible to go. In fact, the very existence
of mass and space and time tells us that the universal
speed limit is finite. Einstein’s interpretation of the meaning
of the Lorentz transformation gives us the Special Theory of Relativity—
time dilation, length contraction, and, of course, mass
to energy equivalence, as described by the famous
equation, E=mc². Awesome episode
on that one here. These are unavoidable
conclusions once we have the basic relationship between
space and time as described by the
Lorentz transformation, and we accept Einstein’s
interpretation of it. So what happens without a
universal speed limit and we pretend c equals infinity? There is no matter, because it would take
infinite energy to make any mass. There is only massless particles
traveling at infinite speed. Time dilation and length
contraction are infinite. There is no time and space,
no cause or effect, because all locations and times
communicate with each other instantly. The universe is an
infinitesimal here-and-now. This is all pretty paradoxical, and so there are,
by definition, inconsistencies in this picture. However, the paradox itself tells us that
an infinite speed limit is impossible. The finite speed of causality is fundamental to us having a universe in the first place. And we want a universe, so I can see you back here
on the next episode of “Space Time.” Last time on “Space Time,” we talked about the edge of the universe and Counter-Strike. Let’s get into the comments. Denny Hiu asks how a universe
that is already infinite [can] expand, and what is it expanding into? Great question. The weird thing here is that some infinities can be bigger than other infinities. Imagine an infinitely long ruler
with markings spaced at every inch. If we stretched the ruler
so that the markings are spaced at every two inches,
the ruler is still infinitely long. But every section of the
ruler has twice as much space. Now replace the
markers with galaxies, and that’s basically what’s
happening with our universe. It doesn’t need to
expand into anything. Every chunk of internal
volume is just getting bigger. RedomaxRedomax asks what you would see if you traveled 18 times the distance to the particle horizon to come back to where you started. So that number, 18 times
the particle horizon, only applies if the universe
has positive curvature— making it a hyposphere—and the curvature is the maximum that it could be,
given the current flatness measurements. But if you travelled that distance— again, assuming the universe froze in its expansion, which it won’t— then you’d get back to your starting point
a long, long, long time later. If you travelled at
the speed of light, it would take around
750 billion years, or 55 times the current
age of the universe. The Milky Way would have
merged with Andromeda, and all stars besides red
dwarves would be long dead. Epsilon Lazerface says that, “… if you go outside the universe, you become a Super Saiyan.” Well, there really would be no way to know that unless you traveled outside *The Universe*. LassieDog999 makes fun of
the way I say “geodesic”. “geo-dez-ic” “geo-dee-zic”
“to-may-to” “to-mah-to” If it’s good enough for the Queen of England,
it’s good enough for me. Tenebrae says, “This was
the most intelligent way they have ever heard of saying,
‘We have absolutely no idea.'” Thank you. I knew my PhD would end up
being good for something. ♪ (Space Time theme) ♪

100 comments

wait a minute… You said that if the speed limit was infinite then there would be no mass because making it would require infinite energy. But since we already assumed an infinite speed limit why is it wrong to assume infinite energy, infinite mass etc?
Even before that, why does it have to be made? Maybe it just is?

Ok smart man, enough of the jargon – time to use common sense:
The universe is expanding, and is doing so at a rate faster than the speed of light.
What is the universe expanding into? If all space and time is within the universe?
So there is something outside of space and time?
The universe can expand outwards beyond the speed of light but within it everything is capped at 300'000m/s. Why?
Also is it possible that within our universe some things, maybe even light, travels far beyond 300'000m/s, but we cannot observe it?
Could it be that any light / energy that travels faster than 300'000m/s simply punches a hole through the fabric of space time and disappears for eternity / resurfaces outside of the universe, where it is free from the limiting fabric of space time?
Have physicists all been barking up the wrong tree?

I feel like someone is going to reveal that the fifth dimension is entropy. Like space and time are able to be represented on a two dimensional table. Someone is going to put causality and entropy on a two dimensional table. Look a the beginning of the universe. In VSL it's High speed of light (causality) and low entropy. As causality slows down, causality rises. And when we get to the heat death of the universe, entropy will bottom out, and causality will increase again. Maybe when causality increases high enough again, we get another big bang.

The Catholic Church's beef with Galileo was that he refused to call his theories theories. He insisted he was 100 percent correct about everything. He said the planets travel in perfectly circular orbits. Not true. He insisted the speed at which planets moved through space was fixed. Not true. He refused to listen to data from Kepler that disproved some of his theory. Galileo was more dogmatic than the Church.

Does light have a mass?

Are we, all life and things, just collections of electrons moving through the universe at a certain frequency and wavelenght at the speed of light?

Somebody buy this guy a new shirt.
Maybe some physical therapy for his bow legs too. He stands like he is constipated. Maybe he’s a cripple and propped up with steel bars in his pants and I shouldn’t make fun of him. He only moves from the waist up.
He certainly is a greasy dirty looking “chap” though.

Feel Think Act is 186000 miles per second faster than Think Feel Think Act. Feeling is the boss; thinking is the manager. The Trinity Solved! George Washington $ 4 Triangles and the Light of the eye is single and when properly folded shows a mushroom. Wishing all: Health Wealth Happiness which can be achieved by understanding the concept of Feel Think Act…

Science has found the unified field theory but apparently don't understand it. The universe is apparently magnelectric information matrix (dream) like the ocean on earth where life comes from. Light is a rate of induction (Ken Wheeler) which doesn't occur until the thought is put forth. Infinite energy (from our perspective (boundary condition) creates mass which is composed only of vibrating eather.

This still doesn't answer the question why 'c' is the value that it is. Saying "'c' at too high a value means no universe" is just invoking the anthropic principle. Why isn't 'c' higher, or lower? And could me make it higher in a local reference frame to achieve effective FTL?

I’m gonna go with “12 minutes is not enough time to explain this concept” instead of “I’m too dumb to get this”. Either way, nice try but this shit went way over my head.

However (and this is a big "However") – space-time itself can expand at velocities many times the speed of light…theoretically, even infinitely faster than the speed of light (this may touch on causality and particle pair "quantum entanglement" / instantaneous communication). The speed of light limit constrains objects (sub-atomic particles, etc.) within the universe, but not space-time itself.

The speed of C is the number of spacial nodes energy can transfer through space ( distance = number of spacial nodes, points in space, or fractal nodes.) Say one node is the Plank's smallest messurable point ,the size of the electron. The number of points in 186 k miles is unfathomable. But if these connections are made instantly between one to the other , given a vast enough number , the infinite become finite in that within a set number of nodes transferring energy, equals a change. In our cells , in our minds and to atoms, I'll stop there.

OK, obviously, particles having zero mass travel at 'C', and things comprised of mass are impeded by that mass, and must travel more slowly, and require energy to do so. That said, I'm struggling to understand why/how galaxies located at a distance further away than the observable universe event horizon are receding away from us faster than 'c'. One explanation was that particles that travel THROUGH space can not exceed 'c', but space itself, it's expansion of the fabric of space, is not similarly limited by 'c'. And clearly, that is occurring at some stunningly higher speed, and accelerating at that. So the rate of expansion, is clearly > 'c', and, of course, also < than infinity, and given that this is happening way "beyond observation", we are left with extrapolation and some assumptions to make some quite educated guesses about what's happening "out there".

2% of gross profit is mine by anyone using my idea (no matter how crude I have explained it) of multiple dimensions is binding. If you do not want to pay do not read any further.

It is like no one actually believes in Relativity. By clarifying Causality there is a starting point and a ending point that can define an aspect of our universe but there are multiple dimensions and or Universes as defined in Relativity. Huge Volume movement with vast distances of mass can define another dimension or universe that could be separate but for the distant matter and gravity that is causing dark energy in our universe.
The question is how much volume bound by even the slightest gravity would it take to create a dimension other than ours with any movement and still have very little effect on our causality?

i guess there is infinite speed could be possible and is it true that light beem can bend or change its direction if that beem gets to effected with huge or enough gravity so that it can change its direction or bend the beem?

Bit confused.. he says that massless particles travel at the maximum speed of "c",

But it has been shown that some particles travel FASTER than "c"
so which is it ?

Without a "Speed of Causation", Light would collapse any dimension to ZERO by crossing it infinitely fast. The Collapse of Dimensions is the collapse of what the Universe is, dimensions with a scale, a number to describe them.

This guy knows how to over complicate things! If I shine a flashlight at something 300,000km away will it get there in 1 second? Pretty damn close I bet.
This guy goes from monkeys and unicorns to Dragonball z. Seriously this guy is an ass!

Based on the understanding I'm getting from this video, dark matter can simply be normal matter that is coming at us faster then 'c'. It just can't be normally perceived or interacted with?

One immensely irritating narrator. I bravely watched for 2 minutes then nausea rescued me and I was out of there.

What BS. When you deny the existence of the ether, you live in a fake world full of the mysterious dark substance commonly referred to as Bullshit. If, however, you prefer to live in reality, then you acknowledge that waves propagate in a medium at the speed allowed by that medium. Light is NOT a THING. WAVES are not things, they are perturbations within the medium. There is no such thing as a phony photon. Wake up and smell the ether, once you do, the universe will make a whole lot more sense. BTW, the "speed of light" is only a limit for WAVES that propagate through that medium. Just as sound propagates through air at the "speed of sound", non-waves (such as airplanes) are not bound to that medium and thus are not bound to the speed of sound. So much "dark matter" in our current science, particle deities have set back humanity centuries.

As you were slaving away on your thesis, to obtain your PhD. Did you ever think it was going to be for my entertainment? Glad it was you.

Speed of light is not a max speed in the universe we can gain more speed than the light and also in very way. As we know that in vacuum a matter never loss its energy we can use this vacuum to get max speed for eg if blast something behind the matter again and again it will incress the speed of matter and in same way we can get the speed of light and more than.
Speed is same as the time it is infinite

Everything travels at the speed of light, not just light. It's just that light is traveling all the time, while other things come to rest for a while every so often and that's what  slows them down. So it's a constant and a also a maximum, you can't have rest periods of negative duration. Speed is really slowness, acceleration is a decrease in rest period duration. Sometimes it's convenient though not strictly true to assume infinite speeds for a moving object between rest periods, for example on one of those clocks where the minute hand jumps forward at the end of every minute to the next division marking. The jump itself is assumed to take zero time before it then stops for a minute, just as the divisions on a ruler are assumed to take up zero space, unlike the spaces between them. Also just as nothing has an RP of negative duration, nothing has one of infinite duration either, it'll move eventually. Reverse inertia maybe.

The only truly unavoidable conclusion we should get from this is that God created the heavens and the earth. And it's interesting to point out that both Newton and Maxwell were Biblical creationists who understood that the only reason we can do science is because we live in a created universe where we can trust that everything will work consistently, just as it does, from one day to the next. To deny this would be true folly.

I have a bachelor's in physics and the first half of this video is a hot mess. Not incorrect, just a mess. It settles down in the second half, but the damage is done.

After I didn’t understand his attempt at a childish explanation with the monkey and pony I knew I was fucked. Get this man a brilliance interpreter.

Wow I actually learned a few things from this video…. (1) I learned that according to my mathematical calculations, it only took 5 words to give me a headache, (2) my brain is infinitely shrinking, (3) basic English language is now foreign……. aaaaand #(4) I now need a PhD to understand how a 2 dimensional animation of a monkey riding a skateboard on a pony
Sums up space, time, matter, speed of light, causation etc…. Asprin, Excedrin, Advil 😒😞

Our physics is in scope of our perception of reality – though limited for our existence to be. I am sure there is more than that in our perception. We should seek for travel not in space but in… non spacious dimmension. We can not travel in cosmos efficiently by earth physics and logics. Rocket angine is ok for earth – not cosmos. What dimmension and possible technology it might be, maybe math can tell us?

I always thought of photons being trapped in a 1 to 1 ratio of space / time. Light is stationary, we are the ones moving inwards.

Light speed is no more a barrier than the speed of sound was.
Recently,particles in space were identify as most in faster than light.

I agree with the "Speed of Causality" explanation. I read a book 15 or more years ago about "light" and the author explained that you can't "see" photons moving until they interact with something. It's almost like they don't exist until they "hit" something. Hence, causality. Something happens there (let's say the Sun) and then something happens here (a photon is "detected"). It is an amazing field of study. I only wish I'd started seeking answers (studying physics) when I was young.

LMAO! Space & time are 2 different things. Need proof? Sometimes you have too much space & not enough time & other times you have too much time & not enough space.

But now we know that every particle is connected to each other without time delay through worm holes – the cause of entangled particles. See the work of Nassim Haramein. The speed of this information is infinite.

Whoa, boy! Slow down to warp speed. How did my little pony get an electric monkey riding a skateboard on its back? This is proof that thought is far faster than light. In any case, it all must be happening in my vacuum cleaner with no brakes and no gravity.

"Unavoidable conclusions?" Really?

#1. How can Entanglement be a reality if there is a cosmic speed limit?
#2. Are scientists still theorizing the speed of light is a constant? Hasn't it been proven not to be? (i.e. Barry Setterfield)
#3. How can light be a constant when we know it slows down when traversing through water?
#4. If water affects the speed of light. Shouldn't we then assume that many factors can change the speed of light? What about changes in gravity and its affect on the speed of light? (like how Time or Spacetime is affected by gravity and mass?).
#5. How can light be a constant when we know its speed is affected by black holes?
#6. Red-shift is the dobbler effect of light… true? The hypothesis that Red shift is light projecting at us while the light source (a star) is traveling away from us… true? But, isn't Red shift (or can we at least theorize that) also the effect of light (not the source of the light) slowing down as it travels towards us. So, stars that are farthest from us have more red-shift because the light has had enough time to slow down enough to shift to the red from our vantage point? If not, why not?

If the maximum speed of causality is c, what about quantum entanglement which is instantaneous at any distance? I know this is a stupid question but I don't know why.

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I could never understand how the speed of light would be a constant to all observers.. this video explains it very well, the explanation derives from more fundamental concepts about nature that you can confirm experimentally. Don't even think of light as having a speed, in fact it's speed varies depending on the type of medium it is traveling through. C is a constant of electricity and magnetism. C is determined from measured constants of Coulomb's law and Faraday's law.

Is the speed of causality the same as the speed of uncertainty? Or, is the uncertainty principle measured at less than c?

What a terrible aggressive stance and look on his face. So distracting. My subconscious is yelling at me, get out of here, this freak will attack you within ten seconds.

i am just a simple enginner anothter mathenatical challenge must be solved if we are going to reach anywhere so i know there is someone that has done the math and i say do not be shy

From differential geometry the metric tensor invariant determines the Lorentz transformations. dx^2-dut^2=ds^2=dy^2-dv^2. Also the wave equation derivable from Maxwell's equations gives he speed of the e-m field: c^2=e_0*mu_0 both universal constants of the medium (in this case the vacuum). Since the e-m field is the dominant field throughout all space this invariant which the e_0*mu*_0 product coincides with the Lorentz transformation invariant makes it the maximum speed of a mass existent (by the mathematical form of the Lorentz transformations).

I have issues taking the concept of a maximum speed seriously, but this video adds a lot of detail to that idea that I did not have before. Thank you.

PROBABLY correct and very clever , but FUCK , is it boring ,with wierd facial , accent and vocal…… ism's .At the end of the day ,will I get laid because I twisted my brain suffering this ,? I don't think it will , so fucckk it

I am not capable of judging the video, just saying what i feel, I have watched many other related videos, but this video is hard to follow and understand

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